OPTIMISING SPORTS PERFORMACE CRIB SHEET

Hormetic dose is the term for generally favorable biological responses to low exposures to toxins and other stressors.

Allostatic load; It is used to explain how frequent activation of the body’s stress response, essential for managing acute threats, can in fact damage the body in the long run. Allostatic load is generally measured through a composite index of indicators of cumulative strain on several organs and tissues, but especially on the cardiovascular system.

Adrenalin; short acting stress hormone – immediate threat, pulsatile secretion.
Cortisol; longer acting stress hormone, prolonged stress, cyclical rhythm.

ANS; autonomic nervous system, made up of the balance between sympathetic and parasympathetic drive.

T4; thyroid hormone built from tyrosine and iodine, converts to T3 active form, master regulator of metabolism.
TRH; thyroid releasing hormone.
TSH; thyroid stimulating hormone, raised initially when thyroid function is reduced.

Insulin; hormone of storage, internalises external world into cells.
Glucagon; opposing hormone, helps release stored glycogen from liver for energy.

ACTH; Adrenocorticotropic hormone tells adrenals to release cortisol, released from pituitary.

HPA Axis; hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal axis. Dysfunction causes altered release of stress hormones.

Aldosterone keeps fluid inside the body along with sodium.

T = testosterone.

OTS = over training syndrome.

5HT = 5 hydroxy tryptophan, pre cursor for serotonin.

Serotonin, sleepy hormone, happy hormone.
Dopamine; do and get it hormone, drive, sex drive – motivation hormone, co-ordination and balance.
Acetyl choline; memory and muscular impulse and contraction, reaction time.
GABA; relaxation and brain rhythm, calming, controls cravings.

Reactive oxygen species, super oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical = Increase inflammation, muscle fatigue and soreness all play part in increased oxidative stress but also serve as necessary signaling molecules for adaptation. Don’t avoid or shut them down excessively with excess antioxidant support.
Cytokines; immune molecules with different properties can be both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory.
TH1 and TH2 are the two part of the immune system which deal with front line defense and learned defense of the body. Imbalance leads to various problems.
Glutathione; major antioxidant enzyme in the body. Protective against most toxins and free radical damage. Associated with longevity.
Antioxidant enzyme systems; the body’s own enzymes built from minerals and cofactors includes SOD super oxide dismutase, catalase, system relies on minerals such as copper, zinc, manganese and iron.

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