Copper is part of two types of superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes. SOD enzymes have essential antioxidant activity, catalysing the breakdown of damaging superoxide radicals that are formed from oxygen metabolism in our cells.[69]

Copper also has a vital role in the production of collagen. An enzyme called lysyl oxidase, which is activated by copper, modifies the amino acids lysine and hydroxylysine into pyridinoline cross-links, which increase the strength and integrity of collagen.[70]



69. Linus Pauling Institute / Jane Higdon, Ph.D.. 2003. Micronutrient Information Center: Copper. [ONLINE] Available at: [Accessed 03 April 15].

70. Makris EA et al. A copper sulfate and hydroxylysine treatment regimen for enhancing collagen cross-linking and biomechanical properties in engineered neocartilage. FASEB J. 2013 Jun;27(6):2421-30.




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